Various Parts That Make Up Tyres
Tyres are one of the very important components in a car. Even if the engine is powerful and all the other parts of the car are in good shape, if the tyres are not proper, all that efficiency would be ultimately wasted. So it is extremely essential for the tyres to be well designed and fit properly for the car to have maximum efficiency. The mileage that the car produces also depends a lot on the design of the tyres. The amount of air pressure in the tyres is also an important aspect that determines the maximum efficiency output of the car. The tyres therefore play a crucial role in the efficiency and performance of a car, or any other vehicle for that matter.
Different components that provide good stability and great strength to the wheels are used to make up the tyres. High strength steel cables line the inner edges of the tyres, which make contact with the rim of the wheel and these are coated with rubber. It is this "Bead" that is responsible for letting the tyres sit firmly on the wheel rim, so that it does not slip. Apart from this, the bead handles the forces applied on the tyres during installation on the wheel rim and this is done with tyre mounting machines. The two bands of beads run along the inner and outer rim of the tyre.
The body-ply, which is the inner-most layer of the tyres, connects the two bands of bead. There is a layer of ply fabric that is generally made of polyester cord, which makes contact with the tube, made of rubber, fitted inside the tyres. These cords can be seen running perpendicular to the line of the treads. A coating of rubber is applied over the plies and adhered well to the various parts of the tyres and provides a perfect seal for the air that is inside the tyres.
The strength of the tyres is determined by the numerous layers of plies that are present in the tyres. For the most part, most of the car tyres have only two plies. Commercial airplanes have as many as 30 plies. Some high-speed cars are fitted with one or two additional layers of plies, which are added just below the tread to ensure maximum support, while securing the components in place. You do not see these types of cap plies in normal tyres. To make steel-belted radial tyres puncture resistant, a few steel belts are added under in tread. The reason for this is that this helps to make good contact with the surface of the road.
The sidewalls of the tyres give the tyres lateral stability and prevent air from inside escaping. They also ensure that the tread runs continuous along with the beads.
All these components are kept in place and then merged together in a tyre building machine. At this point, all the components are loosely fitted together and the tyre is called a green tyre. This is then passed into a curing machine for a process known as vulcanizing. Heat is applied to the green tyre and the tread patterns are moulded on the surface of the tyre. All the various components of the tyre are also bonded together due to the application of heat. The tyre then goes for some finishing procedures and is then ready for use.